Kidney Stones -- Child
(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)
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- Too much oxalate in the urine
- Too much calcium in the urine or blood
- Too much uric acid in the urine
- Tiny bacteria a stone can form around
- Inherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystine
- Foreign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
- Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as neurogenic bladder
- Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
- Eating foods high in salt
- Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
- Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
- Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
- Having kidney stones in the past
- Being overweight
- Medical conditions (eg, urinary tract infections , metabolic conditions)
- Geographic location (residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk)
- Limited physical activity
- Foreign material in the urinary tract (eg, catheter)
- Sudden, severe pain in the side of the body or mid- or lower back
- Pain in the belly or groin area
- Nausea or vomiting
- Blood in the urine
- Burning pain when urinating
- Recurring urinary tract infections
- Very large or growing larger
- Causing bleeding or damage to the kidney
- Causing infection
- Blocking the flow of urine
- Unable to pass on its own
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) —uses shock waves to break up stones that are too large to pass
Ureteroscopy and stone basketing or laser lithotripsy—camera is used to locate the stone
- Stone basketing—A tiny basket is used to remove the stone.
- Laser lithotripsy—The stone is broken into smaller pieces with a laser if it is too large to remove.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy—uses a scope placed through a small tube in the back to remove a large stone (rare)
- Lithotomy—open surgery to remove a stone (rarely used now)
- Have your child drink plenty of fluids, especially water. Avoid sodas.
- Make sure your child does not eat too much food that is high in salt such as potato chips, french fries, processed meats, etc.
- A calcium-rich diet can help bind oxalate before it reaches the kidney. Encourage milk and yogurt.
- If your child is overweight, work with your child’s doctor to learn the safest way for your child to lose weight.
- Encourage water during sporting activities or other active playtimes.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ab.ca
Bladder/kidney stones. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/urinary/diagnose/bladder-kidney-stones.htm#causes . Updated January 2011. Accessed June 25, 2013.
Borghi L, Meschi T, Maggiore U, Prati B. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev . 2006;64:301-312.
Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed June 25, 2013.
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones.cfm . Accessed June 25, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 03/2013 -
- Update Date: 03/01/2013 -