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Cartersville Medical Center

Neuroblastoma -- Child


Neuroblastoma is a rare cancer that usually occurs in children under 5 years of age. The tumor is often found during infancy and may begin before birth. It typically develops in nerve tissue near the adrenal glands just above the kidneys. However, some tumors may develop in the abdomen, chest, neck, or spinal cord.

Like most cancers, neuroblastoma can eventually spread to other parts of the body. Early detection and treatment may prevent the spread of cancer.

Adrenal Glands
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It is not known exactly why the tumor develops. A genetic mutation may be involved.

Risk Factors

Neuroblastoma affects males slightly more often than females. Factors that increase the risk of neuroblastoma include:


Symptoms will depend on the location of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. Some symptoms may include:

  • Lump anywhere on the body, usually the chest, neck, or abdomen
  • Abdominal pain—swollen abdomen in infants
  • Pain such back or bone pain that is not explained
  • Bowel changes and difficulty urinating
  • Trouble breathing or coughing
  • Weakness or paralysis
  • Problems with eyelids and pupils
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Sudden involuntary jerking of muscles and random eye movements


You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests will depend on the suspected location of the tumor.

Your child's bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:

Images may be taken of your child's bodily structures. This can be done with:

The cancer can spread to the liver, lungs, and bones. Early detection is key to a good prognosis.


Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include:


If possible, surgery may be done to remove the tumor.

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body, killing mostly cancer cells. With radiation therapy , radiation is directed at the tumor to kill the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used if the cancer has spread.

Bone Marrow Transplantation

During this type of transplant , bone marrow is removed, treated, and frozen. Large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are applied to kill the cancer cells. After treatment, the bone marrow is replaced via a vein. Transplanted bone marrow may be your child’s own bone marrow that was treated or it may be marrow from a healthy donor.

Some neuroblastomas go away on their own. It is not known why this happens.


Since the exact cause is unknown, there is no way to prevent this type of tumor from forming.

Revision Information

  • National Cancer Institute

  • The Neuroblastoma Children’s Cancer Society

  • Canadian Cancer Society

  • Childhood Cancer Foundation

  • Neuroblastoma. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: Updated September 2014. Accessed June 15, 2015.

  • Neuroblastoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated March 16, 2015. Accessed June 15, 2015.

  • Neuroblastoma. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: Accessed June 15, 2015.

The health information in this Health Library is provided by a third party. Cartersville Medical Center does not in any way create the content of this information. It is provided solely for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical advice and is not intended to be a substitute for proper medical care provided by a physician. Always consult with your doctor for appropriate examinations, treatment, testing, and care recommendations. Do not rely on information on this site as a tool for self-diagnosis. If you have a medical emergency, call 911.